Monday, 15 August 2016

mobile communication


                                                    MOBILE COMMUNICATION
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 In olden days we communicated by smoke signals ,carrier pigeons
what is mobile communication?
      a wireless form of communication in which voice and data information is emitted, transmitted and received via microwaves. This type of communication allows individuals to converse with one another and transmit and receive data while moving from place to place.
some examples: cellular and digital cordless telephones,pagers,air to ground telecommunication and satellite based communications.
what is a mobile?
        A cellular phone is a portable telephone that does not use a wired connection. It connects to a wireless carrier network using radio waves.
what is a mobile phone?
        The mobile phone or cell phone is a long range ,portable electronic device used for mobile communication. In addition to the standard voice function of a telephone, current mobile phones can support many additional services such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video. Most current mobile phones connect to a cellular network of base stations ,which is in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network
Inside a cell phone
         parts of a cell phone

  • A microscopic microphone
  • A speaker
  • An LCD or plasma display
  • A keyboard 
  • An antenna
  • A battery
  • An amazing circuit board containing the guts of the phone
main uses of cell phone
   voice calling ,voice mail, E-mail, Messaging, Mobile content, Gaming, Play music, Take photos or video, Download and view images, Shop, Bank, Location based services
cellular fundamentals
    First Generation cellular system

  • Introduction of analog cellular systems in the late 1970s and 1980s
  • analog system
  • incompatible system
  • limited to voice service
  • no encryption
  • FM modulation
  • FDMA transmission technology
  • suffer from capacity saturation

Second Generation cellular system

  • Introduction of digital cellular systems
  • development of unified international standards for mobile communication
  • pan-national roaming
  • digital encryption
  • enhanced range of services
  • low power consumption
  • light weight, compact and pocket size terminals
  • TDMA transmission technology
  • huge capacity

Third generation cellular system


  • Multimedia services 
  • W-CDMA transmission technology
  • large BW
  • Higher bit rate
  • more services
The cellular structure


  • area divided into small zones (cells)
  • cells grouped into clusters
  • this gives less power usage
  • enable frequency reuse
GSM system
components in GSM:
       3 main components 
  1. Mobile station(MS) -UE,SIM
  2. Base Station Subsystem(BSS)-BTS,BSC
  3. Network and Switching Subsystem(NSS)-MSC,VLR,HLR
 MSC is the heart of the GSM Network
 In GSM- 900
Uplink frequency      :890-915MHz
Downlink frequency  : 935-960 MHz









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