Wednesday, 22 February 2017

         Training Programme on Digital Technologies from “17th to
           21st January, 2017 at   APHRDI , Bapatla  

Brief details of learning at the training programme

What is Android?
       ANDROID is a Linux-based operating system designed for touch screen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet PC.
       Now a day’s ANDROID is one of the most popular mobile OS. Developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance (OHA).
       ANDROID has its own virtual machine i.e. DVM(Dalvik Virtual Machine),which is used for executing the android application.
       ANDROID platform is a platform that provides tools and technologies which can used to develop and build mobile Applications.
       ANDROID applications are usually developed in the Java language using the Android Software Development Kit.
Versions of Android
       Alpha - Android 1.0 (API level- 1)
       Beta Android 1.1 (API level- 2)
       Cupcake - Android 1.5 (API level- 3)
       Donut - Android 1.6 (API level- 4)
       Eclairs - Android 2.0-2.1 (API level- 5 to 7)
       Froyo - Android 2.2-2.2.3 (API level- 8)
       Gingerbread - Android 2.3-2.3.7 (API level- 9 to 10)
       Honeycomb - Android 3.0-3.2.6 (API level- 11 to 13)
       IceCreamSandwitch - Android 4.0-4.0.4 (API level- 14 to 15)
       Jellybean - Android 4.1-4.3.1 (API level- 16 to 18)
       KitKat - Android 4.4-4.4.4 (API level- 19)
       Lollipop - Android 5.0-5.1.1 (API level- 21 to 22)
       Marshmallow – Android  6.0-6.0.1 (API level- 23)
       Nougat - Android 7.0-7.0.1 (API level- 24 to 25)

Types of Android Apps
       Social - (WhatsApp, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc…)
       Entertainment (Digital Music, Adele, BigTV, Hot Star, etc…)
       Games  (Grand Theft Auto Theft, Flick Soccer, Temple Run, Candy Crush, etc…)
       Reading  (BBC News, Pulse News, The Guardian, etc…)
 Android Auto
       Android Auto is a smartphone projection standard developed by Google to allow mobile devices running the Android operating system (version 5.0 "Lollipop" and later) to be operated in automobiles through the dashboard's head unit.
       Android Auto was designed with safety in mind. With a simple and intuitive interface, integrated steering wheel controls, and powerful new voice actions, it's designed to minimize distraction so you can stay focused on the road.
       Android Auto is Google's solution for bringing the power of your smartphone to the relatively dumb nature of vehicle infotainment.
       The standard offers drivers control over GPS mapping/navigation, music playback, SMS, telephony, and web search
       Both touchscreen and button-controlled head unit displays will be supported, although hands-free operation through voice commands is emphasized to ensure safe driving.
       The aim of Android Auto is to extend the functionality of an Android mobile device in an automobile to the dashboard's head unit.
       Android Auto is Google's solution for bringing the power of your smartphone to the relatively dumb nature of vehicle infotainment.
       Basically you're using your phone to broadcast a new user interface onto your car's touchscreen, thus bringing the full power of the latest phones to your car.
       The standard offers drivers control over GPS mapping/navigation, music playback, SMS, telephony, and web search.
What You Need??
       To use Android Auto, you need an Android Auto compatible vehicle or aftermarket radio and an Android phone running 5.0 (Lollipop) or higher.
       When you connect your Android phone to the compatible vehicle or radio, Android Auto will display applications on the vehicle’s screen.
       For more information about Android Auto compatibility, please visit
Android Studio:- Installation Process
       You can start Android Application Development on Operating System like Windows, Mac OS, Linux.
       All the required tools to develop Android applications are freely available and can be downloaded from the Web. Following is the list of software's you will need before you start your Android application programming.
        Java JDK7 or JDK8
       Java Runtime Environment(JRE)
       Android Studio
Launch Android Studio.exe,Make sure before launch Android Studio, Our Machine should required installed Java JDK. To install Java JDK,take a references of Android environment setup
Description: Android Studio
Once you launched Android Studio, it’s time to mention JDK7 path or later version in android studio installer.
Description: Android Studio Installation
Initiate JDK to android SDK
Description: Android Studio Installation
Need to check the components, which are required to create applications, below the image has selected Android StudioAndroid SDKAndroid Virtual Machine and performance(Intel chip).
Description: Android Studio Installation
Need to specify the location of local machine path for Android studio and Android SDK
Description: Android Studio Installation
Need to specify the ram space for Android emulator by default it would take 512MB of local machine RAM.
Description: Android Studio Installation
At final stage, it would extract SDK packages into our local machine, it would take a while time to finish the task and would take 2626MB of Hard disk space
Description: Android Studio Installation
After done all above steps perfectly, you must get finish button and it going to be open android studio project with Welcome to android studio message as shown below
Description: Android Studio Installation
You can start your application development by calling start a new android studio project. in a new installation frame should ask Application name, package information and location of the project
Description: Android Studio Installation
After entered application name, it going to be called select the form factors your application runs on, here need to specify Minimum SDK
Description: Android Studio Installation
The next level of installation should contain selecting the activity to mobile, it specifies the default layout for Applications
Description: Android Studio Installation
At the final stage it going to be open development tool to write the application code.
Description: Android Studio Installation
Create Android Virtual Device
After Click on a virtual device icon, it going to be shown by default virtual devices which are present on your SDK, or else need to create a virtual device by clicking Create new Virtual device button
Description: Android Virtual Device
HelloWorld Example
Before Writing a Hello word code, you must know about XML tags. To write hello word code, you should redirect to App>res>layout>Activity_main.xml
Description: file directory
String File :-
                The strings.xml file is located in the res/values folder and it contains all the text that your application uses. For example, the names of buttons, labels, default text, and similar types of strings go into this file. This file is responsible for their textual content
 <string name="app_name">HelloWorld</string> <string name="hello_world">Hello world!</string> <string name="menu_settings">Settings</string> <string name="title_activity_main">MainActivity</string>
activity_main.xml(layout file)
To show hello word, we need to call text view with layout ( about text view and layout, you must take references at Relative Layout and Text View ).
<RelativeLayout xmlns:android=
                <TextView android:text="@string/hello_world“
                android:layout_height="wrap_content" />
                The main activity code is a Java file This is the actual application file which ultimately gets converted to a Dalvik executable and runs your application
package com.example.helloworld;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;
public class MainActivity extends Activity {     
     public void onCreate(BundlesavedInstanceState) {                     super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);                                                                 setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
     public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
getMenuInflater().inflate(, menu);
return true;
Need to run the program by clicking Run>Run App or else need to call shift+f10key. Finally, result should be placed at Virtual devices as shown below
Description: result
Application Components
       Application components are the essential building blocks of an Android application.
       These components are loosely coupled by the application manifest file AndroidManifest.xml that describes each component of the application and how they interact.
       There are following four main components that can be used within an Android application:
Ø   Activities :   They dictate the UI and handle the user interaction to the smartphone screen        
Ø  Services :They handle background processing associated with an application.    
Ø  Broadcast Receivers : They handle communication between Android OS and applications.           
Ø  Content Providers : They handle data and database management issues.            
An activity represents a single screen with a user interface. For example, an email application might have one activity that shows a list of new emails, another activity to compose an email, and another activity for reading emails. If an application has more than one activity, then one of them should be marked as the activity that is presented when the application is launched.
       An activity is implemented as a subclass of Activity class as follows:
 public class MainActivity extends Activity {
       Other components of Android Application
Android Resources
Resources like static content that your code uses, such as bitmaps, colors, layout definitions, user interface strings, animation instructions, and more. These resources are always maintained separately in various sub-directories under res/ directory of the project.
                You should place each type of resource in a specific subdirectory of your project's res/ directory.
The res/ directory contains all the resources in various subdirectories. Here we have an image resource, two layout resources, and a string resource file.
anim/ :-
        XML files that define property animations. They are saved in res/anim/ folder and accessed from the R.anim class.      
color/  :-
       XML files that define a state list of colors. They are saved in res/color/ and accessed from the R.color class.
drawable/ :-
        Image files like .png, .jpg, .gif or XML files that are compiled into bitmaps, state lists, shapes, animation drawables. They are saved in res/drawable/ and accessed from the R.drawable class.
layout/ :-            
           XML files that define a user interface layout. They are saved in res/layout/ and accessed from the R.layout class.
menu/ :-
              XML files that define application menus, such as an Options Menu, Context Menu, or Sub Menu. They are saved in res/menu/ and accessed from the class.           
values/ :-
                XML files that contain simple values, such as strings, integers, and colors. For example, here are some filename conventions for resources you can create in this directory:
ü   arrays.xml for resource arrays, and accessed from the R.array class.
ü   integers.xml for resource integers, and accessed from the R.integerclass.
ü   bools.xml for resource boolean, and accessed from the R.bool class.
ü   colors.xml for color values, and accessed from the R.color class.
ü   dimens.xml for dimension values, and accessed from the R.dimen class.
ü   strings.xml for string values, and accessed from the R.string class.
ü   styles.xml for styles, and accessed from the class.
xml/ :-
                Arbitrary XML files that can be read at run time by calling Resources.getXML(). You can save various configuration files here which will be used at run time.
Whatever component you develop as a part of your application, you must declare all its components in a manifest file called AndroidManifest.xml which resides at the root of the application project directory. This file works as an interface between Android OS and your application, so if you do not declare your component in this file, then it will not be considered by the OS.

Website links to learn

                                                                                                               M.JOHN JOSEPH, L/ECE, GP Addanki


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